The worldwide spread of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus and Q fever: risk factors and implications for control strategies of a zoonotic disease

Abdolmajid Ghasemian, Al-Alo KZK, Sarvenaz Falsafi, Seyyed Khalil Shokouhi Mostafavi


Abstract: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) orthonairovirus and Q fever are zoonotic infections. CCHF is the dominant tick borne viral infection among livestock, with a serious threat to humans as well. Wide host range and asymptomatic traits has made infection eradication difficult. In addition, low infectious dose of the virus has made it a highly pathogenic agent. CCHF is recognized as a threat to public health and public health services for its epidemic potential, high fatality rate (up to 40%), its potential for nosocomial outbreaks and difficulties in treatment, prevention and control. Q fever is also a serious health threating disease. Knowledge of causative agent (Coxiella burnetii) remains limited until today. The rate of CCHF and Q fever as zoonotic infections has remained high in most of regions worldwide. Hence implementation of accurate control strategies can help prevent its spread. Use of ticks’ repellants, control of livestock and wildlife movements and multinational policies are also essential in this regard. Noticeably, it is necessary to establish and empower the international surveillance fulfills to better predict, investigate and control these infectious diseases, improve the international public health infrastructure, develop enhanced international guidelines, and recommendations to improve the international capabilities toward restriction of disease outbreaks with adequate medical and scientific resources and expertise. To predict and monitor the CCHF and Q fever, regional rather than countrywide scale cooperation is necessary. Immigration/travel also remains an important factor influencing the spread of these agents.

Key words: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Q fever, Zoonoses, control strategies


Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Q fever, Zoonoses, control strategies


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