Detection and assessment of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus in swine serum using the virus neutralization assay

Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Karla Alvarenga Nascimento, Marina Lopes Mechler Dreibi, Samir Issa Samara, Luís Guilherme Oliveira


Abstract: The Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in swine are an important issue to the swine industry due to cross-reaction in serological exams, with the Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) resulting in false-positives. This paper focused on reporting and comparing antibody titers detected in swine serum samples using the virus neutralization assay (VN). To this, 3,084 swine serum samples of 115 swine herds of eight Brazilian states were tested using the VN with BVDV-1 strain Singer and BVDV-2 VS253. Anti-BVDV antibodies were detected in 133 samples (4.31%), 75 (2.43%) were positive when using the BVDV-1 in the assay and 58 (1.88%) were reagent when using the BVDV-2. At herd level, 44.35% (51/115; CI 95%: 35.27-53.43%) had at least one positive animal regardless the species of the virus. The results show that low antibody titer were significantly more frequent than the high ones. Antigenic diversity among the strains used in the VN and the one circulating in swine, and vaccine contamination with BVDV could be involved in the high frequency of low titers. In conclusion, antibodies anti-BVDV were detected in swine of different Brazilian regions. Animal health authorities should be aware of the risk of false positive results to CSF.


Keywords: Virus neutralization, Pestivirus, Swine, Antibodies


ALPAY, G.; YESILBAG, K. Serological relationships among subgroups in Bovine Viral Dirrhoea Virus genotype 1 (BVDV-1). Veterinary Microbiology, v.175, n.1, p.1-6, 2015.

ARRUDA, B.L.; ARRUDA, P.H.; MAGSTADT, D.R.; SCHWARTZ, K.J.; DOHLMAN, T.; SCHLEINING, J.A. Identification of a divergent lineage porcine pestivirus in nursing piglets with congenital tremors and reproduction of disease following experimental inoculation. PlosOne, v.11, n.2, p.1-12, 2016.

BECHER, P.; RAMIREZ, R.A.; ORLICH, M.; ROSALES, S.C.; KÖNIG, M.; SCHWEIZER, M. Genetic and antigenic characterization of novel pestivirus genotypes: implications for classification. Virology, v.311, n.1, p.96-104, 2003.

BOLIN, S.R.; RIDPATH, J.F.; BLACK, J.; MACY, M.; ROBLIN, R. Survey of cell lines in the American Type Culture Collection for Bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal of Virological Methods, v.48, n.2-3, p.211-221, 1994.

BRAZIL. Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Governmental Directive nº 27, 20th of April of 2004. Disposable in: . Acessed on: 09th april of 2016.

BOOTH, R.E.; THOMAS, C.J.; EL-ATTAR, L.M.R.; GUNN, G.; BROWNLIE, J. A phylogenetic analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) isolates from six different regions of the UK and links to animal movement data. Veterinary Research, v.44, n.1, p.43, 2013.

CARBREY, E.A.; STEWART, W.C.; KRESSE, J.I.; SNEIDER, M.L. Natural infection of pigs with bovine viral diarrhea virus and its differential diagnosis from hog cholera. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, v.169, n.11, p.1217-1219, 1976.

DENG, Y.; SHAN, T.; TONG, W.; ZHENG, X.C.; GUO, Y.Y.; ZHENG, H. Genomic characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 isolate from swine. Archives of Virology, v.159, n.9, p.2513-2517, 2014.

DE SMIT, A.J.; EBLÉ, P.L.; KLUJIVER, E.P.; BLOEMRAD, M.; BOUMA, A. Laboratory decision making during the classical swine fever eídemic of 1997-1998 in the Netherlands. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, v.42, n.3-4, p.185-199, 1999.

DUBOVI, E.J. Laboratory diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Biologicals, v.41, p.8-13, 2013.

FLORES, E.F.; WEIBLEN, R., GIL; L.H.V.G.; TOBIAS, F.L.; LIMA, M.; GARCEZ, D.C. Diversidade antigênica de amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina isoladas no Brasil: implicações para o diagnóstico e estratégias de imunização. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, v.52, n.1, p.11-17, 2000.

FLORES, E.F.; RIDPATH, J.; WEIBLEIN, R.; VOGEL, F.S.F.; GIL, L.H.V.G. Phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) isolates: evidence for a subgenotype within BVDV-2. Virus Research, v.87, n.1, p.51-60, 2002.

FLORES, E.F.; WEIBLEIN, R.; VOGEL, F.S.F.; ROEHE, P.M.; ALFIERI, A.A.; PITUCO, E.M. A infecção pelo Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina (BVDV) no Brasil – histórico, situação atual e perspectivas. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira, v.25, n.3, p.125-134, 2005.

FERNELIUS, A.L.; AMTOWER, W.C.; LAMBERT, G.; MCLURKIN, A.W.; MATTHEWS, P.J. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus in swine: characteristics of virus recovered from naturally and experimentally infected swine. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, v.37, n.1, p.13, 1973.

JELSMA, H.; LOEFFEN, W.L.A.; VAN BEUNINGEN, A.; VAN RIJN, P.A. Preliminary mapping of non-conserved epitopes on envelope glycoprotein E2 of Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus types 1 and 2. Veterinary Microbiology, v.166, p.195-199, 2013.

JENSEN, M.H. Detection of antibodies against hog cholera virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in porcine serum. A comparative examination using CF, PLA and NPLA assays. Acta Veterinaria. Scandinavica, v.22, p.85–98, 1981.

LOEFFEN, W.L.A.; VAN BEUNINGEN, A.; QUAK, S.; ELBERS, A.R.W. Seroprevalence and risk factors for the presence of ruminant Pestiviruses in the Dutch swine population. Veterinary Microbiology v.136, p. 240-245, 2009.

LEVINGS, R.L.; WESSMAN, S.J. Bovine viral diarrhea virus contamination of nutrient serum, cell cultures and viral vaccines. Developments in biological standardization, v.75, p.177-181, 1991.

MOENNIG, V.; LIESS, B. Ruminant Pestivirus infection in pig. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz – OIE v.9, n.1, p.151-161, 1990.

OIE. World Organization for Animal Health (2016) Resolution nº 23 – Recognition of the Classical Swine Fever Status of Member Countries. May 2016 – Paris, France.

O’SULLIVAN, T.; FRIENDSHIP, R.; CARMAN, S.; PEARL, D.L.; MCEWEN, B.; DEWEY, C. Seroprevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus neutralizing antibodies in finisher hogs in Ontario swine’ herds and targeted diagnostic testing of 2 suspect herds. Canadian Veterinary Journal, v.52, p.1342-1344, 2011.

PHILIP, J.I.H.; DARBYSHIRE, J.H. Infection of pigs with bovine viral diarrhea virus. Journal of comparative pathology, v.82, n.1, p.105-109, 1972.

RIBEIRO, C.P. Assessment of the virus neutralization cross-reaction using BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 for diagnosing Bovina Viral Diarrhea in naturally infected animals. [Avaliação da virusneutralização cruzada frente BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 no diagnóstico da diarreia viral bovina em animais naturalmente infectados]. 2009, 80 p. Thesis (Master degree in Veterinary Medicine) – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of São Paulo, University of São Paulo, São Paulo.

RIDPATH, J.F. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: global status. Veterinary Clinics: Food Animal Practice, v.26, n.1, p.105-121, 2010.

SANDVIK, T. Selection and use of laboratory diagnostic assays in BVD control programmes. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, v.72, p.3-16, 2005.

SANTOS, A.C.R.; NASCIMENTO K.A.; MECHLER M.L.; ALMEIDA, H.M.S.; GATTO, I.R.H,; CARNIELLI, L.G.F.; SOUSA-POLLO, A. DE OLIVEIRA L.G. Experimental infection and evaluation of airborne transmission and nose-to-nose contact of bovine viral diarrhea virus among weaned piglets. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, v.11, n.15, p.12-19, 2017.

STEWART, W.C.; CARBREY, E.A.; JENNEY, E.W.; BROWN, C.L., KRESSE, J.L. Bovine viral diarrhea infection in pigs. Journal of American Veterinary Medicine Association, v.159, p.1556-1564, 1971.

SCHROEDER, S.; VON ROSEN, T.; BLOME, S.; LOEFFEN, W.L.A.; HAEGEMAN, A.; KOENNEN, F. Evaluation of Classical Swine Fever Virus antibodies assays with an emphasis on the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics, v.31, n.3, p.997-1010, 2012.

TAO, J.; LIAO, J.; WANG, Y.; ZHANG, X.; WANG, J.; ZHOU, G. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infection in pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, v.165, n.3-4, p.185-189, 2013.

TERPSTRA, C.; WENSVOORT, G. Natural infections of pigs with bovine viral diarrhoea virus associated with signs resembling swine fever. Research in Veterinary Sciences, v.45, n.2, p.137-142, 1988.

THRUSFIELD, M.V. Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd Ed. Blackwell Publishing, London, 2010.

VAN RIJN, P.A. A common neutralizing epitope on envelope glycoprotein E2 of different Pestiviruses: Implications for improvement of vaccines and diagnostics for classical swine fever (CSF)? Veterinary Microbiology, v.125, n.1-2, p. 150-156, 2007.

WENSVOORT, G.; TERPSTRA, C.; KLUIJVER, E.P.; KRAGTEN, C.; WARNAAR, J.C. Antigenic differentiation of Pestivirus strain with monoclonal antibodies against hog cholera vírus. Veterinary Microbiology, v.21, p,9-20, 1989.

WESSMAN, S.J.; LEVINGS, R.L. Benefits and risks due to serum used in cell culture production. Developments in Biological Standardization, v.99, p.3-8, 1999.

WIERINGA-JELSMA, T.; QUAK, S.; LOEFFEN, W.L.A. Limited BVDV transmission and full protection against CSFV transmission in pigs experimentally infected with BVDV type 1b. Veterinary Microbiology, v.118, n.1-2, p.26-36, 2006.

WORLD ORGANIZATION OF ANIMAL HEALTH (OIE). 2015. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. Disposable in: Acessed on: 09th Apr 2016

XU, X.; ZHANG, Q.; YU, X.; LIANG, L.; XIAO, C.; XIANG, H. Sequence and comparative analysis of a pig Bovine viral diarrhea virus genome. Virus Research, v.122, n.1-2, p.164-170, 2000.

Texto completo: PDF


  • Não há apontamentos.